Anhydrous ammonia, which contains 82 percent nitrogen, is the most concentrated nitrogen fertilizer, as well as the “basic” nitrogen product that manufacturers upgrade into other nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and UAN solution.
Because of its high nitrogen content, it is often the most cost-effective nitrogen fertilizer. A gas under ambient conditions but a liquid when refrigerated and pressurized, ammonia requires special equipment and technology to transport, store, and apply.
It is applied by injecting it into the subsoil, where it reverts to a gaseous state and combines with the soil’s moisture to provide the essential nitrogen nutrient.
Granular urea, with a 46 percent nitrogen content, is a solid nitrogen fertilizer product. Produced from ammonia and carbon dioxide, it has the highest nitrogen content of any solid nitrogen fertilizer.
Urea can be applied by itself or easily mixed with phosphate and/or potash fertilizers, often as part of a total N-P-K (nitrogen, phosphate, and potash) plant food mix.
As a granular product, urea can be applied directly to the soil using conventional spreading equipment.
Prilled urea, or "prills" are formed by dropping liquid urea from a prilling tower into droplets that dry into roughly spherical shapes 1mm to 4 mm in diameter.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4NO3. It is composed of nitric acid and salt of ammonia. In room temperature, ammonium nitrate appears in a white crystalline form and it is also colorless. Its melting point is at 169.6 degrees Celsius or 337.3 degrees Fahrenheit.
Commercially, it is prepared by mixing nitric acid and ammonia salt. The reaction from the two substances combined will form Ammonium Nitrate.
The kind of ammonium nitrate sold in the market contains an average of 33.5 percent of nitrogen. This compound is very soluble in water; and if the water which ammonium nitrate was dissolved at is heated, the by- product will be nitrous oxide which is commonly referred to as laughing gas.
Calcium ammonium nitrate is a white, grey or brown fertilizer which supplies the plants with nitrogen.
The combination of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen makes CAN an universal and excellent fertilizer, which guarantees an optimal nitrogen supply for all plants. The high lime content of the fertilizer considerably improves the fertility of the soil, and therefore increases the growth and yield of the plants.
Fertilizer grade CAN contains roughly 8% calcium and 21-27% nitrogen. Highly water soluble.
Ammonium sulfate, also called diammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid diammonium salt, is a white crystalline solid with no smell.
It tastes salty. The compound dissolves easily in water but will not dissolve in alcohol or acetone. It readily absorbs water, so if it’s exposed to moist air, it will “scab” on the damp surfaces. When ammonium sulfate reacts with alkaline substances, it gives off ammonia gas.
Finally, ammonium sulfate is a fertilizer that’s sometimes used in making homemade explosives.
Diammonium phosphate(DAP) is teh world’s most widely used phosphorus(P) fertilizer. It is made from two common constituents in the fertilizer industry and it is popular because of its relatively high nutrient content and its excellent physical properties.
It is highly soluble in water and thus disssolves quickly in soil to release plant-available phosphate and ammonium. A notable property of DAP is the alkaline pH that develops around teh dissolving granule.
Diammonium phosphate in the form of hydrogen phosphate is used in the agricultural sector, where it used as a compound fertilizer.
Phosphates react with sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid, which in turn reacts with ammonia. This process converts the poorly water-soluble rock phosphate into a water-soluble phosphate fertilizer that is easily assimilated by plants. DAP is a grey or beige-grey granular substance.
NH4H2PO4, is formed when a solution of phosphoric acid is added to ammonia until the solution is distinctly acidic. It crystallizes in tetragonal prisms. Monoammonium phosphate is often used in the blending of dry agricultural fertilizers.
It supplies soil with the elements nitrogen and phosphorus in a form usable by plants.
MAP is a water soluble mineral phosphate fertilizer, which is used either as a raw material for several complex fertilizers (like NP and NPK) or for direct application. Together with DAP it is the most commonly applied phosphate fertilizer globally.
Both are derived from rock phosphate. With the reaction of rock phosphate and sulphuric acid phosphoric acid is formed. The phosphoric acid is reacted with ammonia in order to create several ammonium phosphate fertilizers, such as MAP.
TSP is a highly concentrated and water soluble greyish, granular phosphate fertilizer with a P2O5 availability of more than 46%. Triple Superphosphate is manufactured in a two stage process.
First, sulphuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock, to produce phosphoric acid. Gypsum is a by-product of the stage and is removed. Secondly, the phosphoric acid is reacted with phosphate rock resulting in triple superphosphate in order to obtain the high concentration of P2O5 in the fertilizer.
Potash is any of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. Potash is a major source of potassium, helps plants grow strong stalks and resist stress such as weeds, insects, disease and changes in temperature.
Sulfuric acid and rock phosphate are major raw materials of single super phosphate manufacturing. Other minor constituents which are required are demineralized water for acid dilution, fuel (natural gas) for air preheating, air and power.
This material was once the most commonly used fertilizer, but other phosphorus (P) fertilizers have largely replaced SSP because of its relatively low P content.
NPK fertilizer is primarily composed of three main elements: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K), each of these being essential in plant nutrition. The three numbers on fertilizer represents the value of the three macro-nutrients used by plants.
These macro-nutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) or NPK for short. Among other benefits, Nitrogen helps plants grow quickly, while also increasing the production of seed and fruit, and bettering the quality of leaf and forage crops.
Nitrogen is also a component of chlorophyll, the substance that gives plants their green color, and also aids in photosynthesis. The higher the number, the more concentrated the nutrient is in the fertilizer.
For example, numbers on fertilizer listed as 20-5-5 has four times more nitrogen in it than phosphorus and potassium. A 20-20-20 fertilizer has twice as much concentration of all three nutrients than 10-10-10.
Nitrogen (N) – nitrogen is largely responsible for the growth of leaves on the plant. Phosphorus (P) – Phosphorus is largely responsible for root growth and flower and fruit development. Potassium (K) – Potassium is a nutrient that helps the overall functions of the plant perform correctly.